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Cardiac Pacemaker/Electrocardiography
By Mary Bellis

Early Heart Pacemaker
Canadian, John Hopps invented the first cardiac pacemaker. Hopps was trained as an electrical engineer at the University of Manitoba and joined the National Research Council in 1941, where he conducted research on hypothermia. While experimenting with radio frequency heating to restore body temperature, Hopps made an unexpected discovery: if a heart stopped beating due to cooling, it could be started again by artificial stimulation using mechanical or electric means. This lead to Hopps' invention of the world's first cardiac pacemaker in 1950. His device was far too large to be implanted inside of the human body. It was an external pacemaker. (Source http://www.nrc.ca)

Wilson Greatbatch
Wilson Greatbatch invented a newly-designed cardiac pacemaker and a corrosion-free lithium battery to power it - Invention Dimension.'

Wilson Greatbatch
Wilson Greatbatch invented the medical cardiac pacemaker. This is the story of how a very average person developed into one of the country's greatest inventors with more than 140 patents. His most famous invention called the cardiac pacemaker, keeps the rhythm of millions of heartbeats and helps people live longer and better.

Cardiology Innovations
The Heart and the Circulatory System
Information about the circulatory system and the history of cardiovascular medicine.

Milestones in Cardiology
The first milestone begins with William Harvey describing blood circulation in 1628.
Heart History
The Heart: An Online Exploration

History of Angioplasty
This brief timeline is intended to give an overview of the history of interventional cardiology.

Artificial Hearts
The history of artificial hearts. Willem Kolff invented both the first artificial heart and the first artificial kidney-dialysis machine.

Heart Lung Machine
The first heart-lung machine was built by physician John Heysham Gibbon in 1937. Gibbon performed the first human open heart operation in 1953.

Coronary Stents
The inventor of the coronary stent was Charles Dotter, who developed his first stent in 1969 that was implanted in a dog. Charles Dotter continued to refine and develop his design and in 1983, together with Andrew Craig, invented an expandable stent made out of nitinol, the material that is commonly used in stents today.
Charles Theodore Dotter - The Father of Intervention

The Wiktor Stent was invented by Dominik M. Wiktor, a Cranford, NJ, engineer, after he underwent open heart surgery in 1984. The stent was first tested in 1987. Wiktor received a patent for the "Wiktor Stent," an intravascular stent (U.S. patent No. 4,886,062) in 1989. Coronary stents are metal wires (stainless steel or metal alloy) that are used to remove blockage of heart arteries The stents are wrapped around a balloon in a deflated state and surgically advanced to the coronary artery blockage. Once placed near the clogged area, the balloon is inflated and the stent expands, pressing the blockage tissue against the wall of the artery, and restoring the blood supply to the heart muscle.
Dominik M. Wiktor

History of the EKG
In 1878, British physiologists John Burden Sanderson and Frederick Page, recorded the electrical current of a frog's heart's using a capillary electrometer. They showed two different phases of electrical current.

In 1887, British physiologist Augustus Waller of St. Mary's Medical School in London published the first human electrocardiogram - recorded by lab technician, Thomas Goswell. Augustus Waller was the first person to use the term electrocardiogram.

In 1891, British physiologists William Bayliss and Edward Starling of University College London improved the capillary electrometer used by Sanderson and Page. Bayliss and Starling connected the terminals to the right hand and to the skin over the apex beat and show a "triphasic variation accompanying (or rather preceding) each beat of the heart". They also demonstrate a delay of about 0.13 seconds between atrial stimulation and ventricular depolarization (later called PR interval).

In 1895, Willem Einthoven distinguished five different phases (deflections) of electrical current shown in a electrocardiogram, which he named P, Q, R, S and T.

In 1920, Harold Pardee of New York publishes the first electrocardiogram of an acute myocardial infarction in a human and describes the T wave as being tall and "starts from a point well up on the descent of the R wave.

In 1924, Willem Einthoven won the Nobel prize for inventing the electrocardiograph.

Electrocardiography - Willem Einthoven
Willem Einthoven was the inventor of the ECG, who won the Nobel Prize (1924) for medicine.

A Brief History of Electrocardiography
A timeline of the invention and the implementation of the ECG.



Related Innovations
Medical Innovations
ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY

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