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John Heysham Gibbon - Heart Lung Machine - Pump Oxygenator


From the National Library of Medicine
John Heysham Gibbon (1903-1973) was born in Philadelphia, PA, and was a fourth generation physician. He received his A.B. from Princeton University in 1923 and his M.D. from Jefferson Medical College of Philadelphia in 1927. He also received honorary degrees from the Universities of Princeton, Buffalo and Pennsylvania, and Dickinson College. As a member of the faculty at Jefferson Medical College, he held the positions of Professor of Surgery and Director of the Department of Surgery (1946-1956) and was the Samuel D. Gross Professor and Chairman of the Department of Surgery (1946-1967). He was widely recognized for his pioneering efforts in surgery and the invention of the heart-lung bypass machine. His awards include the Lasker Award (1968), Gairdner Foundation International Award, Distinguished Service Awards from both the International Society of Surgery and the Pennsylvania Medical Society, the American Heart Association's Research Achievement Award, and election into the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He was named an honorary fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons and retired as Emeritus Professor of Surgery, Jefferson Medical College Hospital. Dr. Gibbon was also president of several professional societies and organizations including the American Surgical Association, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, Society of Vascular Surgery, Society of Clinical Surgery.

The death of a young patient in 1931 first stirred Dr. Gibbon's imagination about developing an artificial device for bypassing the heart and lungs, allowing for more effective heart surgery techniques. He was dissuaded by all with whom he broached the subject, but he continued his experiments and invention independently. In 1935 he successfully used a prototype heart-lung bypass machine to keep a cat alive for 26 minutes. Gibbon's World War II army service in the China-Burma-India Theater temporarily interrupted his research. He began a new series of experiments with dogs in the 1950s, using IBM-built machines. The new device used a refined method of cascading the blood down a thin sheet of film for oxygenation, rather than the original whirling technique that could potentially damage blood corpuscles. Using the new method, twelve dogs were kept alive for more than an hour during heart operations. The next step involved using the machine on humans, and in 1953 Cecelia Bavolek became the first to successfully undergo open heart bypass surgery, with the machine totally supporting her heart and lung functions for more than half the duration.

According to "Internal Workings of the Cardiopulmonary Bypass Machine"
maintained by Christopher M. A. Haslego
extracts included below:

The first heart-lung machine was built by physician, John Heysham Gibbon in 1937 who also performed the first human open heart operation. He is considered the inventor of the heart-lung or pump oxygenator. This experimental machine used two roller pumps and had the capacity to replace the heart and lung action of a cat. John Gibbon joined forces with Thomas Watson in 1946. Watson, an engineer and the chairman of IBM (International Business Machines), provided the financial and technical support for Gibbon to further develop his heart-lung machine. Gibbon, Watson, and five IBM engineers invented an improved machine that "minimized haemolysis and prevented air bubbles from entering the circulation." The device was only tested on dogs and had a 10% mortality rate. Further improvements came in 1945, when Clarence Dennis built a modified Gibbon pump that permitted a complete bypass of the heart and lungs during surgical operations of the heart, however, Dennis' machine was hard to clean, caused infections, and never reached human testing. A Swedish physician, Viking Olov Bjork "invented an oxygenator with multiple screen discs that rotated slowly in a shaft, over which a film of blood was injected. Oxygen was passed over the rotating discs and provided sufficient oxygenation for an adult human. Bjork along with help of a few chemical engineers, one of which who was his wife, prepared a blood filter and an artificial intima of silicon under the trade name UHB 300. This was applied to all parts of the perfusion machine, particularly, the rough red rubber tubes, to delay clotting and save platelets." Bjork took the technology to the human testing phase.

"The first heart lung bypass machine was first used on a human in 1953. In 1960, it was considered safe to use the CBM along with hypothermia to perform CABG surgery."

Related Information
Medical Innovations
Other Cardiac Innovations
The History of IBM

©Mary Bellis

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