The 15th century gave birth to three major events: the beginning of the Renaissance Era (circa 1453) with a return to research and learning after the Dark Ages; the birth of the Age of Discovery with increased exploration and improved naval ships and navigation methods that created new trade routes and trade partners; and the birth of modern printing marked by 15th century master printer Johann Gutenberg's invention of movable type presses (1440) that made the inexpensive mass-printing of books possible.
- First golf balls invented.
- The first piano called the Spinet invented.
- Trigger invented.
- Oil painting invented.
- In Florence, hoisting gear invented.
- Nicholas of Cusa creates spectacles of polished lenses for nearsighted persons.
- Johannes Gutenberg invents printing press with metal movable type.
- In Germany, drypoint engravings invented.
- Muzzle-loaded rifles invented in Italy and Germany.
- In Venice, the first known copyright granted.
- Leonardo DaVinci designed the first parachute.
- Bell chimes invented.
- Leonardo da Vinci first to seriously theorize about flying machines.
- Martin Behaim invented the first map globe.
- Whiskey invented in Scotland.