African American Inventor John Standard:
An improved refrigerator design was patented by African American inventor John Standard of Newark, New Jersey on June 14 1891 (U.S. patent #455,891). John Standard was also received U.S. patent #413,689 on October 29 1889 for an improved oil stove.
John Standard - Refrigerator:
In his patent for the refrigerator John Standard declared, "this invention relates to improvements in refrigerators; and it consists of certain novel arrangements and combinations of parts." John Standard was saying that he had found a way to improve the design of refrigerators. A non-electrical and unpowered design, Standard's refrigerator made in 1891 used a manually-filled ice chamber for chilling.
John Standard - Oil Stove:
John Standard's oil stove was a space-saving design that he suggested could be used for buffet style meals on trains.
History of the Refrigerator:
Contrary to popular folklore John Standard did not invent the very first refrigerator, however, every patent represents something that has not be done before and most utility patents are issued for what is called an "improvement." Improvements are the work of inventors and often it is the improved design that succeeds.